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LA RÉVISION DES TRAITÉS EST LANCÉE - suite 2



Dans une note intitulée "A Leap Towards Federalisation?", l’excellent « Verfassungsblog on matters constitutionnal » (1) attire notre attention sur le projet de rapport de la Commission AFCO du PE - relatif à une réforme de grande ampleur des traités (2) . Cette note propose d’abord une analyse précise des principales dispositions du projet de l’AFCO qui tendent, en résumé, à :

  • débloquer le processus décisionnel et accroitre le rôle du PE

  • élargir les compétences de l’UE dans différents domaines

  • renforcer le contrôle sur l’application du droit européen par les Etats membres.


L’auteur estime que le projet pourrait faire franchir à l’Union une étape de nature fédérale : The EU as a Federal State? If adopted, the proposals would profoundly change the nature of the European Union: the latter would stop being an organisation derived by the will of the Member States and arguably move more towards the structure of a federal state." Et il résume ainsi les principales modifications :

  • the amendment would displace the principle of unanimity. This would diminish the ability of single Member States to stop the decision-making process at the European level

  • in the event a Member States opposed a majority decision, it would have to withdraw from the Union to prevent its application

  • in the event of a Treaty revision, dissenting MS would have to to choose between reluctantly accepting Treaty amendments or exiting the Union altogether.

  • the Union would develop its own Kompetenz-Kompetenz : the flexibility clause under art. 352 TFEU grants the Union a subsidiary legal basis to pursue its objectives by a majority vote of the Council instead of by unanimity

  • emancipation of the Union from the Member States would be furthered by the extension of the ordinary legislative procedure to the adoption of the own resources’ decision and the multi-annual financial framework

  • EU citizens would emerge as the ultimate source of power legitimation at a European level to the extent that – again through a referendum – they can confirm treaty revisions that Member States themselves might not accept.


La conclusion de la note doit retenir l’attention. Tout en admettant que le projet - reflet d’un « rêve fédéraliste » - risque de ne pas se concrétiser, l’auteur de la note fait quatre observations :

  1. the project represents the most advanced proposal of treaty revision since the Spinelli project of 1984,

  2. it could become the basis for a future „constituent battle“ of all pro-European forces around the continent,

  3. the idea of amending the Treaty by majority has finally come out,

  4. if the AFCO project was rejected by some Member States, its adoption by majority could become a politically viable option."


Il est curieux qu’un tel projet - officiel et de nature législative - soit passé quasiment inaperçu des observateurs de la scène européenne. Il faut espérer que - dès son adoption formelle par la Commission AFCO puis sa mise à l’ordre du jour du Parlement - ce projet bénéficie de toute la publicité qu’il mérite et entre dans le débat public.


Jean-Guy Giraud 23 - 09 - 2023

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